Overall initial quality of MY2011 vehicles has improved, with the improvement among carryover models outstripping the degradation of initial quality among newly launched models, according to J.D. Power and Associates' 2011 U.S. Initial Quality Study. It is the first time in five years that initial quality among newly launched models has not improved from the year before, and the quality of carryover models is the best ever recorded. Based on a 228-question survey of more than 73,000 purchasers and lessees of MY2011 cars, trucks, and multi-activity vehicles after 90 days of ownership, the study ranks Lexus as the nameplate with the best initial quality at 73 problems reported per 100 vehicles (PP100) and Dodge the worst at 137 PP100. The industry average was 107. Carryover models registered 103 and newly launched models 122. The major problems with newly launched models were engines or transmissions hesitating and improperly functioning or unintuitive multimedia technologies.