Controllers and relays from LS Industrial Systems (LSiS) can be used for development of hybrid-electric, electric, and plug-in hybrid-electric vehicles, improving fuel efficiency and environmental issues. The company's line of motor controllers includes 100-, 30-, and 15-kW versions and offers improved development, optional customization, and an operating temperature range of -40 to +85°C (-40 to +185°F). Electric-vehicle relay switches are safe for an extended range of vehicle systems and protect components including the power-control-unit module. Designed to supply cutoff for batteries and to prevent instant short circuit failure of capacitor, motor, or harness, the compact relays feature low audible noise and no damage from a 3000-A short-time circuit current. They were designed for Li-ion batteries and also are customizable.