Iveco has revised the Daily range of light trucks to ensure compliance with the Euro V emissions limits due to be enforced from October 2009. The range has been rebranded EcoDaily to include versions powered by natural gas and electricity.
The most powerful diesel engine, the 3.0-L four-cylinder common-rail diesel, produced by Fiat Powertrain Technologies in southern Italy, has been redesigned to comply with the latest Euro-V heavy-duty diesel-emissions limits. Like the light duty variants of the engine, Iveco has opted for enhanced exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and a diesel particulate filter (DPF) to reach the Euro V heavy-duty emissions limits. In fact Iveco has ensured that all heavy-duty-compliant Daily models are homologated to the European enhanced environmentally friendly (EEV) standard, which is more stringent than Euro V.
Revisions to the engine include the adoption of twin sequential turbochargers in place of the single variable-geometry turbocharger used for light-duty variants of the engine. The adoption of the twin turbocharger technology can raise boost pressure and give better temperature control. As Martin Flach, Iveco U.K. Product Director told AEI, “With a single-stage turbocharger, there is less opportunity to get heat out of the inlet air charger, while twin turbochargers need far simpler control systems.”
Other changes include an electrically activated EGR valve in place of the earlier pneumatic type, designed to give more precise and consistent control of exhaust gas recirculation. The EGR cooling system itself and the aftercooler have been uprated. This allows EGR rates to be raised from the previous 3-5% to 20-25%. The effect of the higher level of exhaust gas recirculation and lower air inlet temperatures has been to reduce the quantity of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) formed in the exhaust gases.
The fuel-injection system is now equipped with piezoelectrically activated injector valves, which permit up to eight injection pulses in each sequence. The injector pump has also been replaced to raise injection pressures from 1600 to 1800 bar (23.2 to 26.1 ksi), designed to cut combustion noise, fuel consumption, and emissions. Iveco has also adopted synthetic lubricating oil as standard for the EcoDaily.
The heavy-duty variants of the 3.0-L engine are rated at 140 hp (103 kW) between 2990 and 3500 rpm, with peak torque of 350 N·m (258 lb·ft) between 1250 and 3000 rpm. The higher output variant of the engine is rated at 170 hp (125 kW) between 2990 and 3500 rpm, producing peak torque of 400 N·m (295 lb·ft) between 1250 and 3000 rpm. This represents a slight reduction in peak power output compared with the light-duty Euro IV ratings of 146 hp (107 kW) between 3000 and 3500 rpm and 176 hp (130 kW) between 3200 and 3500 rpm.
Torque output from the light-duty variants is the same as from the heavy-duty variants, although the band is slightly narrower for the 146-hp variant. Peak torque is produced between 1400 and 2800 rpm compared with 1250 and 3000 rpm.
The additional “heavy-duty” rating is the result of a change in the EU emissions legislation relating to light goods vehicles. The change comes into effect with the introduction of Euro V emissions limits in October 2009. In general terms, the legislation is intended to distinguish between light-duty vehicles with a gross vehicle weight not exceeding 3500 kg (7700 lb) and heavy-duty vehicles whose gross weight exceeds that total.
The EU has introduced the term "reference mass," which describes the mass of a vehicle in running order without the additional mass of the driver, a nominal 75 kg (165 lb), but with a nominal load of 100 kg (220 lb). Light-duty vehicles are defined as those with a reference mass up to 2610 kg (5754 lb). This number can be increased under certain conditions up to 2840 kg (6260 lb) at the manufacturer’s request. Heavy-duty vehicles are defined as those with a reference mass greater than 2610 kg. This number can be reduced under certain conditions to 2380 kg (5247 lb) at the manufacturer’s request.
The distinction between heavy- and light-duty vehicles is designed to distinguish between lighter vehicles usually built using passenger-car components and used in connection with business and heavier vehicles, built mostly for use by transportation businesses.
Under these regulations, Iveco will confine the smaller 2.3-L four-cylinder diesel fitted to the EcoDaily to light-duty variants. All heavy-duty EcoDaily models will be fitted with the twin-turbo 3.0-L unit.