At the bottom of FPT Industrial’s range, the customizable 2.2-L R22 engine, developed in partnership with VM Motori, features common rail fuel injection and a fixed geometry turbocharger with aftercooler and wastegate valve. Assuring service intervals up to 600 hours, the three-cylinder engine (two valves per cylinder) complies with Tier 4 Interim/Stage IIIB emissions regulations due to FPT’s maintenance-free aftertreatment solution, specifically developed to achieve emission levels required for power outputs below 56 kW (75 hp). This solution adopts a combination of a DOC and partial flow filter (PFF), canned in an integrated converter. The PFF oxidizes PM that is regenerated passively by nitrogen dioxide when the engine is operating at normal temperatures of over 240°C (464°F). However, if running at lower temperatures, unlike DPFs widely used in engines under 56 kW (75 hp), a PFF will not clog with PM, avoiding any backpressure increase. To ensure a perfect PM conversion in all conditions the filter has been combined with a unique engine management system designed by FPT Industrial’s Research & Development Centre in Arbon, Switzerland. The in-line R22 has a maximum torque of 180 N·m (130 lb·ft) and is suitable mainly for construction machineries such as skid steer loaders and mini excavators.