ESI Group offers version 2.0 of the BioRID-II (Biofidelic Rear Impact Dummy) model for PAM-CRASH/PAM-SAFE 2G. This first industrial version of the newest BioRID-II model makes it possible to accurately simulate the acceleration, force, and kinematics of a car occupant to minimize whiplash injuries that can occur during a rear crash. It features an articulated thoracic/lumbar spine similar to a human’s (having 24 vertebrae). The neck is maintained under pre-tension load via a muscle substitute consisting of a single damper mounted in parallel with a flexor and an extensor spring. According to the company, by using BioRID-II, automotive manufacturers enhance seat-frame structure so that it absorbs more energy and reduces rebound effects, which is decisive to assure the safety of the car occupants during a car crash.