Jaguar Land Rover (JLR) recently unveiled fundamental details of its all-new turbocharged modular gasoline and diesel engine range designed for high levels of efficiency and performance, that will play a major role in the company's new-product assault through 2019. The first engine in the Ingenium range, as it is called, will enter production early next year in Jaguar’s all-new 2015 model XE mid-size sports sedan.
The automaker plans to introduce what it terms “a major new car” every six months, with up to 50 “major production actions” (including hybrid variants) over the next five years. Some £3.5B is scheduled to be invested on product creation.
Ingenium's design "is configurable and flexible for longitudinal and lateral architectures and for front, rear, and all-wheel drive, together with auto and manual transmissions," said Ron Lee, JLR’s Director of Powertrain Engineering. "We can vary cylinder displacement and cylinder count,” he noted. The engine family shares a 500-cm3 cylinder volume.
Hybridization was also a design “must” for the engine, to complement the emphasis on very strong low-end torque, high power output, low emissions (the aim is sub-100 g/km CO2 for the diesel AJ200D launch version) and the ability to power convincingly both the company’s on and off-road, premium products.
JLR is releasing no specific output figures at present, but in terms of torque alone it needs to match or better the 500 N·m (367 lb·ft) of Mercedes-Benz’s highly successful 2.1-L bi-turbo diesel and the VW Group’s similar figure (but over a wider rev range) from its new 2.0-L diesel bi-turbo unit.
Both single- and twin-turbo boosting solutions from Mitsubishi and BorgWarner will be used.
Lee said the most significant plus to ensure Ingenium would meet JLR’s needs was its “clean sheet” creation, enabling every aspect to be created precisely to meet the company’s needs and the requirements of varying global legislation. The engines' design allows them the ability to be updated with emerging technologies.
The engine due in the new XE weighs up to 80 kg (176 lb) less than a typical current equivalent. Particular emphasis has been placed on achieving exceptionally low internal friction, which is described as being 17% less than a current 2.2-L diesel.
“Roller bearings are used on both the cam and balancer shafts instead of conventional machine bearing surfaces," said Lee. "We have simplified the cam drive to reduce the length of the primary chain and replaced some of the traditional sprockets with gears, so reducing moving parts to offset friction.”
The engine has a computer-controlled oil pump to match exactly the amount of oil required according to speed and conditions of the vehicle. It also has a computer-controlled variable water pump to vary coolant flow through the engine, based on temperature, speed and ambient temperature: “That, in combination with a split- or twin-cooling system, means the engine can be warmed very quickly to reduce emissions and to heat the cabin,” Lee explained.
Other aspects of Ingenium's base architecture include bore significantly offset to the crankshaft, and switchable electronically-controlled piston cooling jets used to maximize the efficiency of the oil system.
Initially, it will be built in four-cylinder form. Jaguar is making no comment about a triple but Group Engineering Director, Dr. Wolfgang Ziebart, indicated that he expected electric motors to get bigger and more powerful with ICE’s getting smaller. The “only way” for a premium car manufacturer like JLR to achieve a double-digit emissions fleet average is via hybridization, he indicated.
So efficient might its new hybrids become, that JLR believes it can make very significant advances in closing the gap with pure electric solutions in terms of efficiency when range is factored in and all environmental aspects of electric drive, including the generation of electricity at source, are considered.
The heavily patented Ingenium engine has undergone 72,000 h dyno testing and 2 million miles of real-world road testing as of July 2014. It will be built in an all-new £500 million factory in Wolverhampton, U.K.,using the latest generation, highly flexible CNC systems. Jaguar executives also recently said Ingenium production also is planned for a new China engine factory.