Ionova Technologies claims that its zinc-ion based ZIP-Cap is expected to provide a 25-fold reduction in build cost and a 5-fold increase in energy density—without the ultra-pure materials or expensive "dry-room" facilities that are necessary to build today's ultracapacitors. Alkaline battery manufacturing facilities can be used to make the ZIP-Cap. Suitable for hybrid-electric vehicles requiring long cycle life and rapid charge rates, the ultracapacitor also improves power storage, safety, and voltage scalability. An electric double-layer, capacitor-like positive electrode prevents zinc/metal formation during charge and dissolves back into the electrolyte during discharge to decrease toxicity and flammability. ZIP-Cap features a simplified subsystem design based on metal/ion pseudo-capacitor architecture and 3D technology and demonstrates 50,000 charge cycles with a coulombic efficiency above 98% and without degradation of capacitance or resistance. Single-piece modules can comprise multiple cells and can withstand temperatures down to -50°C (-58°F).