Significant vehicle mass reduction—up to 20%—is achievable if weight reduction is pursued as part of a "full-vehicle approach," according to a study by FEV Inc. released Dec. 13. The company used a 2010 Toyota Venza for its research because that model was used in an earlier, related study. The comprehensive phase-two study by FEV was conducted for the U.S. EPA. The previous study, by Lotus Engineering (go to www.sae.org/mags/aei/8512 to read more), was conducted for the International Council on Clean Transportation. That study did not address mass savings from the powertrain to the extent the new one does, nor did it use advanced CAE tools to judge the impact of mass-savings measures on safety, according to FEV. In both cases, the mass savings were to be achieved with no degradation in safety or other parameters. The new study shows that the body-in-white and closures offered the most mass reduction at 68.32 kg (150.62 lb), followed closely by suspension. Total mass savings of 18.3% (312 kg/688 lb) was achieved, and at a cost savings of $148 from manufacturing efficiencies.