The European Union in April adopted two regulations designed to enhance the safety of trucks with a gross vehicle weight exceeding 3500 kg and buses with more than eight passenger seats, according to InterRegs, an online resource for global vehicle safety and emissions regulations. One specifies the technical requirements and test procedures for advanced emergency braking systems (AEBS) that detect the possibility of a collision with a preceding vehicle; warn the driver by a combination of optical, acoustic, or haptic signals; and if the driver takes no action, automatically apply the vehicle’s brakes. The regulation also specifies two levels of performance to be achieved by AEBS. Fitment of AEBS meeting the "level 1" performance requirements becomes mandatory from Nov. 1, 2013 for new types of vehicles and from Nov. 1, 2015 for all new vehicles. The compliance dates for "level 2" are Nov. 1, 2016 for new types of vehicles and Nov. 1, 2018 for all new vehicles. The other regulation specifies the technical requirements and test procedures for lane departure warning systems (LDWS) that detect unintentional drift of the vehicle out of its travel lane and warn the driver by a combination of optical, acoustic, or haptic signals. Fitment LDWS becomes mandatory from Nov. 15, 2013 for new types of vehicles and from Nov. 1, 2015 for all new vehicles. Both regulations contain a list of specific vehicle types, such as urban buses and off-road vehicles, that are exempt. "New types of vehicles" are models being launched for the first time, and "new vehicles" are new vehicles being registered for the first time.