The California Air Resources Board (CARB) on Jan. 27 adopted rules for fuel efficiency and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that largely align with proposed federal rules for the years 2017-2025 but add certain mandates designed to help automakers achieve the required fuel-efficiency and GHG levels. The CARB rules deviate most significantly from the federal rules in requiring minimum sales levels of full and partial electric vehicles (including hydrogen fuel-cell vehicles). One of the provisions calls for the construction of hydrogen filling stations. The effect of the rules will be to put more than 1.4 million plug-in-electric and fuel-cell vehicles on California roads by 2025. CARB expects the lifetime savings in fuel costs for the average vehicle buyer to be three times as great as the upfront costs of the advanced technologies developed and deployed to improve fuel efficiency. Unlike the federal program, which addresses only fuel efficiency and GHG emissions, the California rules also address NOx and particulate-matter emissions.