By 2017, approximately 90,000 light-duty vehicles and 1500 medium- and heavy-duty trucks will be enabled with vehicle-to-grid (V2G) technologies, according to a new report from Pike Research. The power potential of the batteries can be used to reduce the utility costs of a building or, when aggregated with other vehicles or stationary energy storage sources, to provide ancillary services such as frequency regulation. V2G technologies, over time, will represent a more and more favorable alternative to investing in new power-generation assets. The level of investment in V2G by automakers, utilities, and energy aggregators will be strongly influenced by the global and regional penetration of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). Dozens of PEVs must be aggregated in a given area to produce sufficient power capacity to interest grid operators, and industry participants are waiting for these vehicles to be in place in ample numbers before developing programs. The number of vehicles that could participate in V2G will grow from just over 100,000 light-duty vehicles in 2011 to more than 5 million in 2017.